The first step is ozone oxidation of bacteria, soluble metals such as iron and manganese, sulfide salts such as iron sulfide and hydrogen sulfide and the organic constituents.
This system is unique in is simplicity and energy efficiency as well as treatment efficacy.
In cases where more complex hydrocarbons are present the process is enhanced with additions of trace levels of hydrogen peroxide in order to produce multiple times more oxidative power than ozone alone.
A unique mechanical configuration which produces sufficient sequentially applied shear forces within a conventional ozone treatment system to produce bubbles of ozone so fine they appear as a fog in the treated water.
The minute bubbles remain in solution in the water, available to provide residual oxidation power, for several days after treatment.
In some cases, when organic flocculents are necessary for optimum filtration, low concentrations of residual flocculation chemicals can be removed from the water prior to reuse.
In such cases a secondary ozone treatment is applied to the water which eliminates these remaining trace level molecular organic constituents.
Following this treatment, any residual ozone is reverted back to oxygen through a simple, industry standard process.
A byproduct of the ozone treatment is the elimination (reclamation) of oil and grease hydrocarbons from the recycled water. Read more.
Treated water may be left in "solution" to provide bacteria control in the water and mitigate the cost of conventional bacterial agents.
In production scale operations the process has cleaned residual crude oil off the walls of the tanks by virtue of the residual effects of the ozone treatment. Read more.
This is done in-closed loop mitigating confined space entry by personnel.
The next stage in the treatment process is a patented floc formation apparatus.
Complex molecular organic constituents are reduced to lower molecular weight and extracted by a chemical, precipitation and coagulation step.
A single proprietary chemical precipitates dissolved trace organic materials from the water as well as trace iron and other metals.
The patented filtration process is an elegantly simple, multi stage design that filters and dewaters the precipitated and extracted materials and TSS.
This system is unique in its ability to manage large volumes of fluids and solids with minimal human interaction.
The flocculation mechanism promotes complete capture of all coagulated materials onto readily settled flocs which separate from the clear supernatant fluid and dewater within the dewatering box.
The filtration process is contained within a conventional box trailer for pickup truck or fifth wheel towing as a modular process, dependent upon the system size/capacity.
Treatment capacities are accommodated between 5,000 BBL/day up to 15,000 BBL/Day.
Additional capacity is accommodated with additional modular trailers. A Typical layout is shown below.
The clear fluid is drawn off the bottom of the box and sent to storage. The solids remain in the box where they are dewatered through gravity coupled with the action of air bladders.
These dewatered solids are then disposed of like any dewatering box at a landfill with a conventional roll off truck.
The dewatering box has a typical capacity of 20 to 25 tons of sludge which relates to approximately 8,000 dry pounds of solids per day.
Assuming 1,000 PPM of TSS, 1000 BBLs of production water will produce approximately 350 pounds of dry solids or approximately 1200 pounds of dewatered, damp sludge.
Dewatering/filtration boxes would be capable of holding the sludge from approximately 30,000 BBLs of production water.
In order to treat the process effluent to a level suitable for surface discharge we implement a reverse osmosis treatment regimen.
The multi stage Reverse Osmosis Process produces low TDS water and high TDS crystal clear brine.
These results have been validated by Sandia National Labs, which sponsored a test of the technology and confirmed its superiority versus 54 other technologies used for preparation of oil and gas waste waters for reverse osmosis.
The reverse osmosis portion of the process requires additional trailers containing the pumps, membranes and intermediate process tanks as well as additional storage tanks for reverse osmosis influent, permeate and product storage.
This process has successfully been implemented in production conditions, producing near drinking quality water.